History of Modern Political Thought in East-Central Europe

Centre for Advances Study (CAS), Sofia
European Research Council (ERC)


Bibliography (Under construction)

A, General literature

i, History of European political thought
ii, Syntheses on the history of the region
iii, Overviews of main trends in the intellectual, cultural and social history of the region
iv, General overviews by country or sub-regions
v, Question of regionality
vi, Relevant methodological literature

 B, Enlightenment

 i, Transformation of political language: forging the new "reason of state" (Enlightened Absolutisms and the Estates) 

ii, Patriotic allegiance and national mobilization
iii, Growth of the national public space: imperial, national, urban 
iv, Language and ‘democratization'
v, Enlightened Historiographical projects
vi, Aesthetics and Politics: Harbingers of Romanticism
vii, Repercussions of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars in East Central Europe

C, The Romantic framework of political ideas

i, Continuities with the Enlightenment paradigms
ii, The question of emancipation and social reforms   
iii, National culture and the search for historical models
iv, Debates on national and transnational cultural and political loyalties
v, Romantic Messianism
vi, Constitutionalism
vii, Debates on municipal autonomy and reform
viii, Moderates and Radicals in the reform movements
ix, Critiques of the national awakening: conservative, supra-national, regionalist
x, The political ideas of the revolutionaries in 1848
xi, Handling the nationality question (in the revolutionary period and afterwards)
xii, The ideologists of Counter-Revolution


D, Projects of state-building and nation-building in the second half of the 19th c.

i, "Eastern Question"
ii, The historical-ideological framework of projected and actual Compromises, Dualisms and Trialisms
iii, Pan-ideologies
iv, Liberalism and nationalism after 1848
v, The paradigm shift of liberal doctrine "Old" vs. "New" liberalisms
vi, Church question: nationalization, secularization, Kulturkampf  
vii, The "Critical turns” – history, sociology, ethnography in a positivist key  
viii, The discourses of "national economy"
ix, The rise of leftist and rightist anti-liberalisms


E, The Fin-de-siècle reconfiguration of political thought and the emergence of mass-politics

i, The transformation of 19th century ideological divide Liberals / Conservatives in the context of mass politics
ii, Radical democrats and socialists
iii, The rise of populism
iv, Anarchists and anarcho-syndicalists
v, New conservatives
vi, Clerical nationalism and Christian Socialism
vii, The impact of Social Darwinism, the rise of integral nationalism
viii, Antisemitism
ix, Feminism
x, Pacifism
xi, Federalist projects
xii, Other supra-national projects: Slavism, Latinism, Turanism
xiii, Modernization of historiography
xiv, Social Sciences: sociology, political science, law, economics
xv, Cultural-political thematization of modernity
xvi, World War One and radicalization of politics: modernization through war and its consequences


F, Interwar negotiations of modernity

i, Ideas of self-determination and constitutional debates after 1918
ii, Centralism, federalism and regionalism
iii, Theoretical approaches to nationalism
iv, Theoreticians of technocratism / etatism and the articulations of legal positivism
v, National liberalisms and projects of "neo-liberalism"
vi, Aesthetic-political modernism – cultural progressivism
vii, Varieties of anti-totalitarianism
viii, The discourse of crisis (cultural and political "anti-modernisms")
ix, Generational ideologies
x, National metaphysics, autochthonisms and ethnic ontologies
xi, Politicization of religion
xii, Varieties of Fascism
xiii, Theories of corporativism
xiv, Authoritarianism - royal dictatorships, theories of charismatic leadership, criticism of party politics
xv, Biopolitical nationalism
xvi, Revolutionary left – reactions to 1917 and the radicalization of leftist politics
xvii. Varieties of democratic and self-managing socialism
xviii, Socialism and the national question (the issue of self-determination, Korenizatsiya, “progressive” and “reactionary” national aspirations)
xix, Socio-economic theories on modernity and backwardness in the socialist tradition  
xx, Leftist pluralism in the 1930s: avantgardism and socialism, adherents and critiques of Stalinism, Popular Front ideologies
xxi, Agrarian radicalism
xxii, Third way theories – theories of protectionism and/or free trade
xxiii, Peasantism and ethno-nationalism
xxiv, World War II - Collaborationism
xxv, Anti-fascism - domestic
xxvi, Anti-fascism - exile


G, After 1945: Totalitarianism, Anti-Totalitarianism, Reformism

i, Experiences of the collapse of the old regime, reflections on the Holocaust  
ii, Ideological debates on the character of democracy
iii, Debate on the symbolic geographical reorientation
iv, Ideological debates within the communist movement
v, Visions of democratic socialism
vi, Non-Communist democratic alternatives: Christian Democracy, Centrist Agrarianism, Liberalism  
vii, Underground anti-Communist resistance movements
viii, Stalinism and Sovietization
ix, The voices of dissent
x, "Thaw" period, New courses, 1956 and its consequences
xi, Varieties of "Marxist revisionism"
xii, The cultural upsurge of the 60s: youth subcultures, alternative cultures, re-canonization of the modernist heritage
xiii, 1968 and its aftermaths – reform socialism and beyond
xiv, Non-communist ideological trends and Church
xv, Ideological subcultures of the exile movements
xvi, Rule and authoritarian government in real socialism
xvii, Varieties of national communism
xviii, Perestroika reformism
xix, Political ideas of the opposition movements of the 1970-80s
xx, Symbolic mapping of national culture in the 1970-80s


H, The political ideas of 1989 and "after the End of History"

i, Ideas of 1989; reflections on non-violent revolutions/regimes changes
ii, The ambiguous legacy of the liberal transition package
iii, Politics of coming to terms with the "totalitarian" past, decommunization and transitional justice vs. the politics of the "thick line"
iv, Ideological frameworks of state-building after 1989  
v, The evolution of the early post-communist political systems; search for ideological traditions and the emergence of new polarizations
vi, The rise of neo-nationalisms and debates on the typology of East Central European nationalisms
vii, Minority policies and movements
viii, Church, religion and democracy
ix, Disputes over post-modernity
x, Rising Kulturkampf of the 2000s: the collapse of consensus politics
xi, Attempts at forging a "new left"
xii, New political themes and movements: ecology, gender, globalization
xiii, New populism
xiv, Debates on "Europeanization"
xv, New national states, transnational frameworks and security question